‘The association that aims to embrace all other goods, the highest good and the “most sovereign” association is the state. This is the association which we call the state, the association which is “political”, the association that takes the form of a polis’. Aristotle, The Politics (4th Century BC/1982) para. 1252a1.
‘Therefore, because of the discovery of fire, there arose at the beginning, concourse among men, deliberation and a life in common. Many came together into one place,….’ Vitruvius, On Architecture, books I-V (1st Century BC/1998) p.77.
‘The existence of this inclination to aggression,… disturbs our relations with our neighbour and… forces civilisation into such a high expenditure of energy. In consequence of this primary mutual hostility of human beings, civilised society is perpetually threatened with disintegration.’ Sigmund Freud, Civilisation and its Discontents (1930) p.49.
‘The only indispensable material factor in the generation of power is the living together of people. Only where men live so close together that the potentialities of action are always present can power remain with them, and the foundation of cities, which as city-states have remained paradigmatic for all Western political organisation, is indeed the most important material prerequisite for power.’ Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (1958) p.201.
‘Any group or collective, large or small, is only a number of individuals. A group can have no rights other than the rights of its individual members.’ Ayn Rand, The Virtue of Selfishness (1964).
‘Nothing is transmissible but thought…. The law of life: death.’ Le Corbusier, opening passage of Mise au Point (1965/1966).
‘The city… is to be understood here as architecture. By architecture I mean not only the visible image of the city and the sum of its different architectures, but architecture as construction, the construction of the city over time. I believe that this point of view… addresses the ultimate and definitive fact in the life of the collective, the creation of the environment in which it lives.’ Aldo Rossi, The Architecture of the City (1966/1982) p.21.
‘In the future individualism ought to be the efficient utilization of the whole individual for the absolute benefit of a collectivity.’ Che Guevara [reproduced from http://www.wiseoldsayings.com/individualism-quotes/]
‘The ship is the heterotopia par excellence. In civilizations without boats, dreams dry up, espionage takes the place of adventure, and the police take the place of pirates.’ Concluding sentences of Michel Foucault, ‘Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias’ (1967) in Architecture/Mouvement/Continuité (1984) p.9.
‘The right to the city cannot be conceived of as a simple visiting right or as a return to traditional cities. It can only be formulated as a transformed and renewed right to urban life. It does not matter whether the urban fabric encloses the countryside and what survives of peasant life, as long as the ‘urban’, place of encounter, priority of use value, inscription in space of a time promoted to the rank of a supreme resource among all resources, finds its morphological base and its practico-material realization. Which presumes an integrated theory of the city and urban society,…’ Henri Lefebvre, ‘The Right to the City’ (1968) in Writings on Cities (1996) p.158.
‘The manipulative bias of such ideologies [new urbanism] has never been more openly expressed than in Robert Venturi’s Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966) wherein the author asserts that Americans do not need piazzas, since they should be at home watching television. Such reactionary attitudes emphasize the impotence of an urbanised population which has paradoxically lost the object of its urbanization.’ Kenneth Frampton, ‘Towards a critical regionalism: 6 points for an architecture of resistance’, in Forster, ed., Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture (1983) p.25.
‘And, you know, there’s no such thing as society. There are individual men and women and there are families. And no government can do anything except through people, and people must look after themselves first. It is our duty to look after ourselves and then, also, to look after our neighbours.’ Margaret Thatcher, in an interview in Women’s Own (1987)
‘We no longer find ourselves dealing with the mass/individual pair. Individuals have become “dividuals”, and masses, samples, data, markets, or “banks”. Perhaps it is money that expresses the distinction between the two societies best, since discipline always referred back to minted money that locks gold in as numerical standard, while control relates to floating rates of exchange,…’ Gilles Deleuze, ‘Postscript on the Societies of Control’ in October 59 (1992) p. 5.
‘I maintain that the concept of “multitude,” as opposed to the more familiar concept of “people,” is a crucial tool for every careful analysis of the contemporary public sphere.’ Paolo Virno, A Grammar of the Multitude (2004) p.21.
‘Further expanding the already large class of Foucauldian apparatuses, I shall call an apparatus [dispositif] literally anything that has in some way the capacity to capture, determine, intercept, model, control, or secure the gestures, behaviors, opinions, or discourses of living beings. Not only, therefore, prisons, madhouses, the panopticon, schools, confession, factories, disciplines, juridical measures, and so forth (whose connection with power is in a certain sense evident), but also the pen, writing, literature, philosophy, agriculture, cigarettes, navigation, computers, cellular telephones and – why not – language itself, which is perhaps the most ancient of apparatuses – one in which thousands and thousands of years ago a primitive inadvertently let himself be captured, probably without realizing the consequences that he was about to face. Giorgio Agamben, ‘What is an apparatus’ in What is an Apparatus and other essays (2006/2009) p.14.
‘Our individualism has always been bound by a set of communal values, the glue upon which every healthy society depends.’ Barack Obama [reproduced from http://www.wiseoldsayings.com/individualism-quotes/]